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Updates found with 'air pipe'

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Updates found with 'air pipe'

Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography - Procedure and Results..Sometimes, when it comes to problems in the abdominal area, an ultrasound is not clear enough for a diagnosis. In such cases, an Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) may be performed. This procedure gives the doctor a clear view of the duodenum, bile duct, pancreatic ducts, gallbladder and papilla of Vater.This procedure is usually performed under intravenous sedation without general anesthesia. This procedure involves the use of a duodenoscope, which can be described as a thin, long, flexible tube with a camera at one end. It also has a fiber optic bundle that transmits lights to the camera and a chip to transmit video images to a TV screen.This is inserted through the patient’s mouth and sent down the throat through the food pipe to the stomach and duodenum while the patient is lying on his or her back. The air pipe is left undisturbed so as to not interfere with the patient’s breathing. Since the patient is not under general anesthesia, he or she can move and turn according to the doctor’s needs. The papilla of Vater is a small nipple like structure with an opening to the bile duct and pancreatic duct. Once this has been identified, a small plastic catheter is passed through the duodenoscope into the bile duct or pancreatic duct through the papilla. Dye is then injected into the area and X-rays are taken of the bile ducts and pancreatic duct. In cases where a biopsy is needed, other instruments can also be passed through the endoscope. Plastic or metal stents can also be passed through this to relieve obstructions in the bile ducts and pancreatic ducts.ERCP can be used to diagnose and treat a number of conditions in the liver, bile ducts, gall bladder, pancreas and papilla of Vater. These include:• Blockage of the bile duct by gallstones, cancer, scars, tumors or compression from adjacent organs.• Jaundice due to an obstructed bile duct. This can also cause light stools and dark urine.• Persistent upper abdominal pain• Unexplained weight loss and loss of appetite• Diagnosing a Dysfunctioning Sphincter of Oddi within the Papilla of VaterERCP can also be used to confirm pancreatic cancer and cancer of the bile duct. Once the diagnosis is confirmed, the doctors can customize treatment according to the patient’s needs.
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What is Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD)? In healthy individuals, the liver contains little or no fat. In overweight or obese people, gradual fat accumulation leads to significant liver disease. Interestingly, these individuals may be consuming minimal to no alcohol. So, alcohol, which is the main cause for liver damage, does not have a significant role to play.The non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has 4 significant stages as outlined below. It is a chronically progressive disease and may take years to reach the final stages of cirrhosis and fibrosis.1. Simple fatty liver (steatosis): This is usually identified when diagnostic tests are done for some other suspected conditions. There are usually no symptoms obvious in this stage, other than the buildup of fat in the liver.2. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH): The second stage where the liver is inflamed to a greater extent due to fat accumulation.3. Fibrosis: The next degree of inflammation where blood vessels may be narrowed leading to scarring in the liver with impaired liver functions.4. Cirrhosis: This is the most severe stage that occurs due to years of cumulative inflammation. The liver shrinks in size, is scarred, and liver functions are markedly impaired and can also result in liver cancer.Risk factors for NAFLD: The exact reason why a person develops NAFLD is not established, but some of the risk factors include1. Obesity, with more weight concentrated around the abdomen2. Type 2 diabetes3. High blood pressure4. High cholesterol levels5. Age greater than 506. SmokingSymptoms: This will depend on the stage in which it is identified. While there are no symptoms in the early stages, in some people there could be a dull, aching below the ribs, unexplained weight loss, weakness, and extreme tiredness. As it progresses to cirrhosis, there could be jaundice, fluid accumulation in the abdomen and feet, and itching of the skin.Management: While there is no treatment aimed at curing the disease per se, there are ways to manage the symptoms, as noted below.1. Weight loss: Reducing excess accumulated fat will help reverse symptoms and prevent further progression of the disease. A BMI of 18 to 26 is considered optimal.2. Dietary changes: Modify your diet to a carbohydrates and protein rich and reduced fats and sugars. Increasing fiber through fruits and vegetables is highly recommended.3. Exercise: Whatever your choice of workout, it will do wonders for NAFLD. Keep a target of an hour or two of moderate to intense exercise per day to reduce weight.4. Smoking: This is another risk factor and can also help prevent other effects of NAFLD such as diabetes and heart disease.NAFLD is highly controllable with these changes and other damages can be reversed too. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a gastroenterologist.
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How to Evaluate and Treat Dyspepsia?For a healthy body, proper digestion and absorption of food is very important. The digestion is an extremely intricate process and involves many organs. Impairment in any of the organs can hamper the digestive process, leading to a very common condition called dyspepsia. It is caused by malfunction of one of the muscular organs along the digestive tract including esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines and colon.Causes: While dyspepsia is more a symptom, there are various reasons that lead to it including gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, infections, motility disorders, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), cancers of the digestive tract or any other abnormality in the digestive tract.Evaluation: When a patient has chronic dyspepsia or indigestion, the first thing to do is a thorough evaluation to find out the underlying cause. As noted above, there are functional and nonfunctional causes leading to dyspepsia. While gastric ulcers or polyps are visible during an endoscopy, conditions like gastritis and malignancy can only be diagnosed under microscopic examinations.Some of the tests that are used for evaluation of the cause of dyspepsia include:1. X-ray: Any growth would be visible on an x-ray and further testing can then be done to confirm the exact nature of it.2. Endoscopy: This will allow the doctor to see the actual digestive tract and identify any structural abnormalities or growth.3. Colonoscopy: If the problem is suspected to be in the lower gastrointestinal tract, then a colonoscopy may be in indicated.4. Gastric emptying study: This study can also reveal the abnormalities in the digestive tract5. Culture: Dyspepsia caused by Helicobacter pylori can be diagnosed through cultures of the stomach contents.Treatment: The treatment of dyspepsia is quite complicated and cannot be clearly outlined given the various conditions that it is associated with. Even specific foods can induce indigestion in some people. Therefore, a multipronged approach is required to treat dyspepsia.Education: The affected person should be educated about the non-life-threatening nature of the problem and its chronicity. Some of the drugs used in treatment include:1. Proton pump inhibitors: These reduce the amount of acid produced in the stomach and thereby help in relieving symptoms.2. Promotility drugs: They improve the movement of the muscles in the intestinal tract and are so used in managing dyspepsia.3. Antibiotics: If an infection is suspected, antibiotics are effective.4. Smooth muscle relaxants: Drugs like hyoscyamine and methscopolamine have been shown to provide relief in some patients.5. Psychotropic drugs: Anxiety and depression are frequently seen in people with dyspepsia, and managing these can help reduce the dyspepsia.As noted, the causes, symptoms, and management are very specific to individuals and needs to be managed by the doctor.
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